The High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in the state, and can try all offences including those punishable with death. the work of most High Courts consists of Appeals from lowers courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the Constitution of India.
A cluster of Princely States with an oasis known as Ajmer-Merwara, a British India Territory, was given geographical expression as Rajputana. These Twenty and odd Rajputana States before 20th Century AD were dynastic and the Rulers also known as Princes were the fountain head of all Executive, Legislative and Judicial Authority in the States, In every state there were Jagirdars also and in some they were known as Kotri Thikanas. Except few benevolent rulers in some states the most of them represented the despots of princes and their orders. People had no hand in administration and there were no democratic institutions. People awaited day of their liberation from feudal clutches and peasants, workers and women, their emancipation. As soon as the country got free dom from British Imperialism, to make the history of these Princely States, the history of the past, the most dynamic and powerful Home Minister of India Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel started the process of integration of the States to form bigger units and this process in Rajputana started in March, 1948.
A greater Rajasthan was formed when Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer also joined the United States of Rajasthan. Maharana Udaipur was made Maharaj Pramukh with Sawai Man Singh of Jaipur as Raj Pramukh .This new State of Rajasthan was inaugurated by Sardar Patel on 30/3/1949 at Jaipur but it actually came into existence on 7/4/1949. Despite this inauguration, the High Court was no formally established simultaneously and existing arrangements at these newly joined States continued. The process of integration of all states was completed only when Matsya union also merged on 15.5.1949. The First High Court of Rajasthan was inaugurated by H.H. Maharaja Sawai Man Singh Ji of Jaipur at Jodhpur on 29.8.1949.
Hon’ble Chief Justice Kamala Kant Verma and 11 other judges were administered the oath of office by Maharaja Sawai Man Singh of Jaipur at Jodhpur High Court premises on 29.8.1949. These 11 judges represented virtually most of the Princely States, except Hon’ble Chief Justice Kamala Kant Verma, who came from Allahabad. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Naval Kishore, and Hon’ble Mr. Justice Amer Singh of Jasol were from Jodhpur, Hon’ble Mr. Justice K.L. Bapna, and Hon’ble Mr. Justice Ibrahim were from Jaipur, Hon’ble Mr. Justice J.S. Ranawat and Hon’ble Mr. Justice Shardul Singh Mehta were from Udaipur, Hon’ble Mr. Justice DS Dave was from Bundi, Hon’ble Mr. Justice Tirlochan Dutt was from Bikaner, Hon’ble Mr. Justice Anand Narain Kaul was from Alwar, Hon’ble Mr. Justice K.K. Sharma was from Bharatpur, Hon’ble Mr. Justice Khem Chand Gupta was from Kota. The Principal Seat of High Court was kept at Jodhpur and the Benches at Kota, Jaipur and Udaipur.
The Constitution of India came into force on 26.1.1950 and the State of Rajasthan therein was given the status of ‘B’ Class State. The strength of the High Court Judges was also reduced and it was also essential that the Judges must confirm to the eligibility provided under the Constitution of India. The result was that Hon’ble Chief Justice Verma could not be continued and had to laid down his office since he had completed the age of 60 years. In the vacancy caused by retirement of Hon’ble Mr. Justice Naval Kishore and Justice Ibrahim, two eminent lawyers Viz. Indra Nath Modi from Jodhpur, and Shri D.M. Bhandari from Jaipur were elevated to the Bench.
In 1956 State Re-organisation Act was passed. Consequent upon the recommendation of State Re-organisation Commission, the Union Territory of Ajmer Merwara which had the Status of Part ‘C’ States, Abu, Sunel and Tappa areas merged into the State of Rajasthan and the Reorganised Unit is the Rajasthan of today which was given the status of ‘A’ Class State, on 1st November, 1956.
The Rajasthan High Court as ‘A’ Class State, started with the strength of only 6 judges. For scrutinising as to whether the standard of working of all the Judges of the Rajasthan High Court as part ‘B’ State was as high as that of the Judges of the part ‘A’ State, the then Chief Justice of India, Hon’ble Mr. Justice S.R. Das came to Rajasthan. He observed that functioning of the High Court by sitting with the Hon'’le Judges in the Court and found that all the 6 Judges were fit to be appointed and on his recommendation, the President of India, issued fresh warrnats of appointment and once again the Oath taking ceremony took place on 1st Nov., 1956. Four Judges Viz. Justice Bapna, Justice Ranawat, Justice Sharma and Justice Bhandari used to sit in the Jaipur Bench, while Justice Dave and Justice Modi used to sit at Jodhpur, Chief Justice Wanchoo sitting at both places.
The Bench at Jaipur was initially abolished in the year 1958, however was again established with effect from 31.1.1977. The strength of the High Court, since thereafter went on increasing which has now become to 32 Judges.
So far as lower Judiciary is concerned, presently, the State is bifurcated into 33 Judgships. There are 33 courts of District & Sessions Judges and 108 Courts of Additional District & Sessions Judges, 697 Judicial officers are working on the posts of Civil Judge (Senior Division) – cum – Chief Judicial Magistrate, Additional Civil Judge (Sr. Division)-cum-Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate and Civil Judge (Junior Division)-cum-Judicial Magistrate.